# Visibility Data Selection¶

Once in MS form, subsets of the data can be operated on using the tasks and tools. In CASA, there are three common data selection parameters used in the various tasks: field, spw, and selectdata. In addition, the selectdata parameter, if set to True, will open up a number of other sub-parameters for selection. The selection operation is unified across all the tasks. The available selectdata parameters may not be the same in all tasks. But if present, the same parameters mean the same thing and behave in the same manner when used in any task.

For example:

field = ''         #field names or index of calibrators ''==>all
spw = ''           #spectral window:channels: ''==>all
selectdata = False #Other data selection parameters


versus

field = ''         #field names or index of calibrators ''==>all
spw = ''           #spectral window:channels: ''==>all
selectdata = True  #Other data selection parameters
timerange = ''     #time range: ''==>all
uvrange = ''       #uv range''=all
antenna = ''       #antenna/baselines: ''==>all
scan = ''          #scan numbers
msselect = ''      #Optional data selection (Specialized. but see help)


The following are the general syntax rules and descriptions of the individual selection parameters of particular interest for the tasks.

The full documentation of the MeasurementSet data selection syntax can be found on the CASAcore documentation page, document 263 “Measurement Selection Syntax” see also CASA Memo 3. Links to relevant subsections are provided in the subsections below.

## General selection syntax¶

Most of the selections are effected through the use of selection strings. This sub-section describes the general rules used in constructing and parsing these strings. Note that some selections are done through the use of numbers or lists. There are also parameter-specific rules that are described under each parameter.

All lists of basic selection specification-units are comma separated lists and can be of any length. White-spaces before and after the commas (e.g. ‘3C286, 3C48, 3C84’) are ignored, while white-space within sub-strings is treated as part of the sub-string (e.g. ‘3C286, VIRGO A, 3C84’). In some cases, spaces need to be quoted, e.g. “‘spw 1’” (note the double quote around the single quotes).

All integers can be of any length (in terms of characters) composed of the characters 0–9. Floating point numbers can be in the standard format (DIGIT.DIGIT, DIGIT., or .DIGIT) or in the mantissa-exponent format (e.g. 1.4e9). Places where only integers make sense (e.g. IDs), if a floating point number is given, only the integer part is used (it is truncated). CASA 6 internally promotes integers to doubles, and for tasks CASA 6 ensures that the parameter values are converted to the internally acceptable type.

Range of numbers (integers or real numbers) can be given in the format ‘N0~N1’. For integer ranges, it is expanded into a list of integers starting from N0 (inclusive) to N1 (inclusive). For real numbers, it is used to select all values present for the appropriate parameter in the MeasurementSet between N0 and N1 (including the boundaries). Note that the '~' (tilde) character is used rather than the more obvious ‘-‘ in order to accommodate hyphens in strings and minus signs in numbers.

Wherever appropriate, units can be specified. The units are used to convert the values given to the units used in the MeasurementSet. For ranges, the unit is specified only once (at the end) and applies to both the range boundaries.

## String Matching¶

String matching can be done in three ways. Any component of a comma separated list that cannot be parsed as a number, a number range, or a physical quantity is treated as a regular expression or a literal string. If the string does not contain the characters ‘*’, ‘{‘, ‘}’ or ‘?’, it is treated as a literal string and used for exact matching. If any of the above mentioned characters are part of the string, they are used as a regular expression. As a result, for most cases, the user does not need to supply any special delimiters for literal strings and/or regular expressions. For example:

field = '3'    #match field ID 3 and not select field named "3C286".

field = '3*'   #used as a pattern and matched against field names. If
#names like "3C84", "3C286", "3020+2207" are found,
#all will match. Field ID 3 will not be selected
#(unless of course one of the above mentioned field
#names also correspond to field ID 3!).

field = '30*'  #will match only with "3020+2207" in above set.


However if it is required that the string be matched exclusively as a regular expression, it can be supplied within a pair of ‘/’ as delimiters (e.g. ‘/.+BAND.+/’). A string enclosed within double quotes (‘”’) is used exclusively for pattern matching (patterns are a simplified form of regular expressions - used in most UNIX commands for string matching). Patterns are internally converted to equivalent regular expressions before matching. See the Unix command “info regex”, or visit http://www.regular-expressions.info, for details of regular expressions and patterns.

Strings can include any character except the following:

',' ';' '"' '/' NEWLINE


(since these are part of the selection syntax). Strings that do not contain any of the characters used to construct regular expressions or patterns are used for exact matches. Although it is highly discouraged to have name in the MS containing the above mentioned reserved characters, if one does choose to include the reserved characters as parts of names etc., those names can only be matched against quoted strings (since regular expression and patterns are a super-set of literal strings – i.e., a literal string is also a valid regular expression).

This leaves ‘”’, ‘*’, ‘{‘, ‘}’ or ‘?’ as the list of printable character that cannot be part of a name (i.e., a name containing this character can never be matched in a MSSelection expression). These will be treated as pattern-matching even inside double double quotes (‘” “’). There is currently no escape mechanism (e.g. via a backslash).

Some examples of strings, regular expressions, and patterns:

• The string ‘LBAND’ will be used as a literal string for exact match. It will match only the exact string LBAND.

• The wildcarded string ‘*BAND*’ will be used as a string pattern for matching. This will match any string which has the sub-string BAND in it.

• The string ‘”*BAND*”’ will also be used as a string pattern, matching any string which has the sub-string BAND in it.

• The string ‘/.+BAND.+/’ will be used as a regular expression. This will also match any string which as the sub-string BAND in it. (the .+ regex operator has the same meaning as the * wildcard operator of patterns).

## The field Parameter¶

The field parameter is a string that specifies which field names or ids will be processed in the task or tool. The field selection expression consists of comma separated list of field specifications inside the string.

Field specifications can be literal field names, regular expressions or patterns (see above). Those fields for which the entry in the NAME column of the FIELD MS sub-table match the literal field name/regular expression/pattern are selected. If a field name/regular expression/pattern fails to match any field name, the given name/regular expression/pattern are matched against the field code. If still no field is selected, an exception is thrown.

Field specifications can also be given by their integer IDs. IDs can be a single or a range of IDs. Field ID selection can also be done as a boolean expression. For a field specification of the form ‘>ID’, all field IDs greater than ID are selected. Similarly for ‘<ID’ all field IDs less than the ID are selected.

For example, if the MS has the following observations:

MS summary:
==========
FIELDID SPWID NChan Pol NRows Source Name

---------------------------------------------------------------
0 0 127 RR 10260 0530+135
1 0 127 RR 779139 05582+16320
2 0 127 RR 296190 05309+13319
3 0 127 RR 58266 0319+415
4 0 127 RR 32994 1331+305
5 1 1 RR,RL,LL,RR 23166 KTIP


one might select

field = '0~2,KTIP'  #FIELDID 0,1,2 and field name KTIP
field = '0530+135' #field 0530+135
field = '05*'          #fields 0530+135,05582+16320,05309+13319


Field Selection - Expression for selection data along frequency axis (CASAcore docs)

## The spw Parameter¶

The spw parameter is a string that indicates the specific spectral windows and the channels within them to be used in subsequent processing. Spectral window selection (‘SPWSEL’) can be given as a spectral window integer ID, a list of integer IDs, a spectral window name specified as a literal string (for exact match) or a regular expression or pattern.

The specification can be via frequency ranges or by indexes. A range of frequencies are used to select all spectral windows which contain channels within the given range. Frequencies can be specified with an optional unit — the default unit being Hz. Other common choices for radio and mm/sub-mm data are *kHz, MHz**,* and GHz. You will get the entire spectral windows, not just the channels in the specified range. You will need to do channel selection (see below) to do that.

The spw can also be selected via comparison for integer IDs. For example, *’>ID’** *will select all spectral windows with *ID* greater than the specified value, while *’<ID’** *will select those with *ID* lesser than the specified value.

Spectral window selection using strings follows the standard rules:

spw = '1'                      #SPWID 1
spw = '1,3,5'                #SPWID 1,3,5
spw = '0~3'                  #SPWID 0,1,2,3
spw = '0~3,5'               #SPWID 0,1,2,3 and 5
spw = '<3,5'                 #SPWID 0,1,2,3 and 5
spw = '*'                      #All spectral windows
spw = '1412~1415MHz' #Spectral windows containing 1412-1415MHz.


In some cases, the spectral windows may allow specification by name. For example,

spw = '3mmUSB, 3mmLSB'      #choose by names (if available)might be meaningful for the dataset in question.


Note that the order in which multiple spws are given may be important for other parameters. For example, the mode = ‘channel’ in clean uses the first spw as the origin for the channelization of the resulting image cube.

Channel selection in the spw parameter

Channel selection can be included in the spw string in the form ‘SPWSEL:CHANSEL’ where CHANSEL is the channel selector. In the end, the spectral selection within a given spectral window comes down to the selection of specific channels. We provide a number of shorthand selection options for this. These CHANSEL options include:

• Channel ranges: ‘START~STOP’

• Frequency ranges: ‘FSTART~FSTOP’

• Channel striding/stepping: ‘START~STOP^STEP’ or ‘FSTART~FSTOP^FSTEP’

The most common selection is via channel ranges ‘START~STOP’ or frequency ranges ‘FSTART~FSTOP’:

spw = '0:13~53'        #spw 0, channels 13-53, inclusive
spw = '0:1413~1414MHz' #spw 0, 1413-1414MHz section only


All ranges are inclusive, with the channel given by, or containing the frequency given by, START and STOP plus all channels between included in the selection. You can also select the spectral window via frequency ranges ‘FSTART~FSTOP’, as described above:

spw = '1413~1414MHz:1413~1414MHz' #channels falling within 1413~1414MHz
spw = '*:1413~1414MHz'                      #does the same thing


You can also specify multiple spectral window or channel ranges, e.g.

spw = '2:16, 3:32~34' #spw 2, channel 16 plus spw 3 channels 32-34
spw = '2:1~3;57~63'   #spw 2, channels 1-3 and 57-63
spw = '1~3:10~20'     #spw 1-3, channels 10-20
spw = '*:4~56'        #all spw, channels 4-56


Note the use of the wildcard in the last example.

A step can be also be included using ‘^STEP’ as a postfix:

spw = '0:10~100^2'        #chans 10,12,14,...,100 of spw 0
spw = ':^4'               #chans 0,4,8,... of all spw
spw = ':100~150GHz^10GHz' #closest chans to 100,110,...,150GHz


A step in frequency will pick the channel in which that frequency falls, or the nearest channel.

Frequency Selection - Expression for selection along the frequency axis (CASAcore docs)

## The selectdata Parameters¶

The selectdata parameter, if set to True (default), will expand the inputs to include a number of sub-parameters, given below and in the individual task descriptions (if different). If selectdata = False, then the sub-parameters are treated as blank for selection by the task.

The common selectdata expanded sub-parameters are:

## The antenna Parameter¶

The antenna selection string is a semi-colon (‘;’) separated list of baseline specifications. A baseline specification is of the form:

• *’ANT1’** *— Select all baselines including the antenna(s) specified by the selector *ANT1*.

• ‘ANT1&’ — Select only baselines between the antennas specified by the selector ANT1.

• ‘ANT1&ANT2’ — Select only the cross-correlation baselines between the antennas specified by selector ANT1 and antennas specified by selector ANT2. Thus ‘ANT1&’ is an abbreviation for ‘ANT1&ANT1’.

• ‘ANT1&&ANT2’ — Select only auto-correlation and cross-correlation baselines between antennas specified by the selectors ANT1 and ANT2. Note that this is what the default antenna=’’ gives you.

• ‘ANT1&&&’ — Select only autocorrelations specified by the selector ANT1.

The selectors ANT1 and ANT2 are comma-separated lists of antenna integer-IDs or literal antenna names, patterns, or regular expressions. The ANT strings are parsed and converted to a list of antenna integer-IDs or IDs of antennas whose name match the given names/pattern/regular expression. Baselines corresponding to all combinations of the elements in lists on either side of ampersand are selected.

Integer IDs can be specified as single values or a range of integers. When items of the list are parsed as literal strings or regular expressions or patterns. All antenna names that match the given string (exact match)/regular expression/pattern are selected.

ALERT: Just for antenna selection, a user supplied integer (or integer list) is converted to a string and matched against the antenna name. If that fails, the normal logic of using an integer as an integer and matching it with antenna index is done. Note that currently there is no method for specifying a pure index (e.g. a number that will not first be checked against the name).

The comma is used only as a separator for the list of antenna specifications. The list of baselines specifications is a semi-colon separated list, e.g.

antenna = '1~3 & 4~6 ; 10&11'


will select baselines between antennas 1,2,3 and 4,5,6 (‘1&4’, ‘1&5’, …, ‘3&6’) plus baseline ‘10&11’.

The wildcard operator (‘*’) will be the most often used pattern. To make it easy to use, the wildcard (and only this operator) can be used without enclosing it in quotes. For example, the selection

antenna = 'VA*'


will match all antenna names which have *’VA’** *as the first 2 characters in the name (irrespective of what follows after these characters).

There is also a negation operator “*!**”* that can be used to de-select antennas or baselines.

Some examples:

antenna=''           #shows blank autocorr pages
antenna='*&*'        #does not show the autocorrs
antenna='*&&*'       #show both auto and cross-cor (default)
antenna='*&&&'       #shows only autocorrs

antenna='5&*'        #shows non-auto baselines with AN 5

antenna='5,6&&&'     #AN 5 and 6 autocor
antenna='5&&&;6&*'   #AN 5 autocor plus cross-cors to AN 6
antenna='5,6,7&'     #all baselines in common between antennas 5, 6, and 7
antenna='!5'         #baselines not involving AN 5


Antenna numbers as names: Needless to say, naming antennas such that the names can also be parsed as a valid token of the syntax is a bad idea. Nevertheless, antenna names that contain any of the reserved characters and/or can be parsed as integers or integer ranges can still be used by enclosing the antenna names in double quotes (‘ “ANT” ‘). E.g. the string

antenna = '10~15,21,VA22'


will expand into an antenna ID list 10,11,12,13,14,15,21,22 (assuming the index of the antenna named ‘VA22’ is 22). If, however, the antenna with ID index 50 is named ‘21’, then the string

antenna = '10~15,21,VA22'


will expand into an antenna ID list of 10,11,12,13,14,15,50,22. Keep in mind that numbers are FIRST matched against names, and only against indices if that matching fails. There is currently no way to force a selection to use the index, and if there an antenna with that name it will select that.

Read elsewhere (e.g. info regex under Unix) for details of regular expression and patterns.

Antenna stations

Instead of antenna names, the antenna station names are also accepted by the selection syntax., e.g. ‘N15’ for the JVLA.

ANT@STATION selection syntax

Sometimes, data from multiple array configurations are stored in a single MS. But some antennas may have been moved during reconfiguration and the* **’ANT@STATION’* syntax can distinguish between them. ‘ANT’ is the antenna name or index and ‘STATION’ is the antenna station name, e.g., ‘EA12@W03’ selects antenna EA012 but only at times when it is positioned on station W03. Wildcards are accepted, e.g. ‘EA12@*’ selects all visibilities from antenna EA12, and ‘*@W03’ would select all antennas that are located on station ‘W03’ during any observations included in the MS.

Antenna/Baseline Selection - Expression for selection along baseline/antenna aixs (CASAcore docs)

## The scan Parameter¶

The scan parameter selects the scan ID numbers of the data. There is currently no naming convention for scans. The scan ID is filled into the MS depending on how the data was obtained, so use this with care.

Examples:

scan = '3'          #scan number 3.
scan = '1~8'      #scan numbers 1 through 8, inclusive
scan = '1,2,4,6'  #scans 1,2,4,6
scan = '<9'        #scans <9 (1-8)NOTE: ALMA and VLA/JVLA number scans starting with 1 and not 0. You can see what the numbering is in your MS using the **listobs** task with *verbose=True.*


Scan/Sub-array Selection - Expression for selection based on scan or sub-array indices (CASAcore docs)

## The timerange Parameter¶

The time strings in the following (T0, T1 and dT) can be specified as YYYY/MM/DD/HH:MM:SS.FF. The time fields (i.e., YYYY, MM, DD, HH, MM, SS and FF), starting from left to right, may be omitted and they will be replaced by context sensitive defaults as explained below.

Some examples:

timerange=’T0~T1’: Select all time stamps from T0 to T1. For example:

timerange = '2007/10/09/00:40:00 ~ 2007/10/09/03:30:00'


Note that fields missing in T0 are replaced by the fields in the time stamp of the first valid row in the MS. For example,

timerange = '09/00:40:00 ~ 09/03:30:00'


where the* **YY/MM/* part of the selection has been defaulted to the start of the MS.

Fields missing in T1, such as the date part of the string, are replaced by the corresponding fields of T0 (after its defaults are set). For example:

timerange = '2007/10/09/22:40:00 ~ 03:30:00'


does the same thing as above.

timerange=’T0’: Select all time stamps that are within an integration time of T0. For example:

timerange = '2007/10/09/23:41:00'


Integration time is determined from the first valid row (more rigorously, an average integration time should be computed). Default settings for the missing fields of T0 are as in the first example.

timerange=’T0+dT’: Select all time stamps starting from T0 and ending with time stamp T0+dT. For example:

timerange = '23:41:00+01:00:00'


picks an hour-long chunk of time.

Defaults of T0 are set as usual. Defaults for dT are set from the time corresponding to MJD=0. Thus, dT is a specification of length of time from the assumed nominal “start of time”.

timerange=’>T0’: Select all times greater than T0. For example:

timerange = '>2007/10/09/23:41:00'
timerange = '>23:41:00'                   #Same thing without day specification


Default settings for T0 are as above.

timerange=’<T1’: Select all times less than T1. For example:

timerange = '<2007/10/09/23:41:00'


Default settings for T1 are as above.

An ultra-conservative selection might be:

timerange = '1960/01/01/00:00:00~2020/12/31/23:59:59'


which would choose all possible data!

Time Selection - Expression for selection data along time axisTime Selection (CASAcore docs)

## The uvrange Parameter¶

Rows in the MS can also be selected based on the uv-distance or physical baseline length that the visibilities in each row correspond to. This uvrange can be specified in various formats.

The basic building block of uv-distance specification is a valid number with optional units in the format N[UNIT] (the unit in square brackets is optional). We refer to this basic building block as UVDIST. The default unit is meter. Units of length (such as *’m’** and *’km’) select physical baseline distances (independent of wavelength). The other allowed units are in wavelengths (such as ‘lambda’, ‘klambda’* and *’Mlambda’ and are true uv-plane radii

$UVDIST=\sqrt{u^2+v^2}$

If only a single UVDIST is specified, all rows, the uv-distance of which exactly matches the given UVDIST, are selected.

UVDIST can be specified as a range in the format ‘N0~N1[UNIT]’ ](where N0 and N1 are valid numbers). All rows corresponding to uv-distance between N0 and N1 (inclusive) when converted the specified units are selected.]

UVDIST can also be selected via comparison operators. When specified in the format ‘>UVDIST’, all visibilities with uv-distances greater than the given UVDIST are selected. Likewise, when specified in the format ‘<UVDIST’, all rows with uv-distances less than the given UVDIST are selected.

Any number of above mentioned uv-distance specifications can be given as a comma-separated list.

Examples:

uvrange = '100~200km'                              #an annulus in physical baseline length
uvrange = '24~35Mlambda, 40~45Mlambda' #two annuli in units of mega-wavelengths
uvrange = '< 45klambda'                             #less than 45 kilolambda
uvrange = '> 0lambda'                                #greater than zero length (no auto-corrs)
uvrange = '100km'                                      #baselines of length 100km
uvrange = '100klambda'                              #uv-radius 100 kilolambda


UV-distance Selection - Expression for selection based on uv-distance (CASAcore docs)

## The correlation Parameter¶

The correlation parameter will select between different correlation products. They can be either the correlation ID or values such as ‘XX’, ‘YY’, ‘XY’, ‘YX’, ‘RR’, ‘LL’, ‘RL’, ‘LR’.

Polarization Selection - Expression for selection along the polarization axis (CASAcore docs)

## The intent Parameter¶

intent is the scan intent that was specified when the observations were set up. They typically describe what was intended with a specific scan, i.e. a flux or phase calibration, a bandpass, a pointing, an observation of your target, or something else or a combination. The format for the scan intents of your observations are listed in the logger when you run listobs. Minimum matching with wildcards will work, like ‘*BANDPASS*’. This is especially useful when multiple intents are attached to scans.

‘Scan Intent’ based selection - Selection by intent (CASAcore docs)

## The observation Parameter¶

The observation parameter can select between different observation IDs. They will be assigned to parts of a combined data set during a run of concat. Each input MS will receive its own observation id in the process.

## The feed Parameter¶

The feed parameter can select between different feeds, e.g. for different feeds in a single dish multibeam array.

## The msselect Parameter¶

More complicated selections within the MS structure are possible using the Table Query Language (TaQL). This is accessed through the msselect parameter.

Note that the TaQL syntax does not follow the rules given in above for our other selection strings. TaQL is explained in more detail in CASAcore NOTE 199 — Table Query Language. The specific columns of the MS are given in the most recent MS specification document.

Most selection can be carried out using the other selection parameters. However, these are merely shortcuts to the underlying TaQL selection. For example, field and spectral window selection can be done using msselect rather than through field or spw:

msselect='FIELD_ID == 0'                  #Field id 0 only
msselect='FIELD_ID <= 1'                  #Field id 0 and 1
msselect='FIELD_ID IN [1,2]'              #Field id 1 and 2
msselect='FIELD_ID==0 && DATA_DESC_ID==3' #Field id 0 in spw id 3 only


ALERT: The msselect style parameters will be phased out of the tasks. TaQL selection will still be available in the Toolkit.

This page describes the syntax for the various expressions for selecting data from the MeasurementSet, implemented in the MSSelection module of CASACore. All expressions consist of a comma or semi-colon separated list of speciﬁcations. The MSSelection module can also be used for other tables that follow the general data base design of the MeasurementSet. The CASA CalTables is an example which also uses the MSSelection module for selection.The most up to date document will always be on the CASACore GitHub Repository. The content in this page is derived from this GitHub snapshot.

Using *MSSelection* expressions in TaQL - MSSelection expressions can also be used in pure-TaQL expressions (CASAcore docs)